The Pall Mall Gazette publishes the first recognized account of the term psychopath as we understand it today. Reporting on the acquittal of a Russian woman in a child murder case, the Gazette points to the testimony of Dr. M. Balinsky as being central to the verdict in the case, having informed the jury that the accused was suffering from "psychopathy," and therefore morally irresponsible.
In explaining this "new malady" Dr. Balinsky is quoted as saying that the psychopath "is an individual whose every moral faculty appears to be of the normal equilibrium. He thinks logically, he distinguishes good and evil, and he acts according to reason. But of all moral notions he is entirely devoid. Beside his own person and his own interests, nothing is sacred to the psychopath."
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Daniel M'Naghten shot and killed Edmund Drummond the private secretary of British Prime Minister Sir Robert Peel; mistakenly thinking Drummond was Peel, his intended target.
In a landmark legal ruling M'Naghten was found not guilty of murder on the grounds that his delusional mental state rendered him incapable of knowing that what he was doing was wrong. This enduring legal precedent within the insanity defense became known as the 'The M'Naghten Rules.'
(Note: The correct spelling of M'Naghten's surname is the subject of much debate and is sometimes documented as McNaughton, McNaughten or McNaughtan.)
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The Insanity Defense
David Rosenhan's classic article "On Being Sane in Insane Places" was published in the journal Science. Introduced with the question "If sanity and insanity exist, how shall we know them?" Rosenhan's paper outlined the details and addressed the implications of, a study conducted between 1969 and 1972 in which he and several colleagues gained admission to various psychiatric hospitals by faking a single symptom; namely, that they had been hearing voices. Upon admission to a psychiatric ward, Rosenhan and his fellow participants would immediately cease simulating any symptoms of abnormality.
Rosehan's central question was, would anybody detect that the pseudopatients involved in the study were in fact sane. The answer was a resounding no, raising fundamental questions regarding the experience of psychiatric hospitalization and the consequences of psychodiagnostic labeling.
Robert Glaser was born. A pioneer in the field of instructional psychology, Glaser founded the Learning Research and Development Center at the University of Pittsburgh in 1963 from where he produced a groundbreaking body of work on the role of educational assessment and the science of learning.
A world renowned researcher and academic, Robert Glaser received the American Psychological Association (APA) E. L. Thorndike Award for Distinguished Psychological Contributions to Education in 1982 and the APA Distinguished Scientific Award for the Applications of Psychology in 1987.
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At a ceremony at the White House, President Lyndon B. Johnson presented B. F. Skinner with The National Medal of Science, "For basic and imaginative contributions to the study of behavior which have had profound influence upon all psychology and many related areas."
The National Medal of Science is the United States Government's highest award for distinguished achievement in science.
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Franz Brentano was born. A celebrated thinker and influential writer on the philosophical foundations of psychology, Brentano is best known for introducing the concept of intentionality and for developing original theories on a range of topics including consciousness, emotion, judgment and logic.
Brentano's major works include 'The Psychology of Aristotle' (1867), 'Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint' (1874) and 'The Classification of Mental Phenomena' (1911).
Josef Breuer was born. An eminent physician and pioneer in the field of neurophysiology, Breuer is best known within psychology for being Sigmund Freud's mentor and for playing an integral role in the early development of psychoanalysis. Breuer introduced the psychoanalytic concepts of free association and emotional catharsis and it was in a letter to Breuer that Sigmund Freud made his first published reference to das unbewusste 'the unconscious.'
Josef Breuer is also renowned for treating the first patient of psychoanalysis, Bertha Pappenheim. More commonly known as "Anna O," Sigmund Freud was greatly influenced by the case and despite never treating her himself, regularly referred to 'Anna O's' talking cure as a 'great therapeutic success.'
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