Stanley Milgram used the term 'debriefing' in a psychological research context for the first time in his reply to Diana Baumrind, who had expressed concern over the welfare of subjects participating in his famous study of obedience.
Published in the journal American Psychologist under the heading Procedures and Benefits, Milgram stated: 'The debriefing and assessment procedures were carried out as a matter of course, and were not stimulated by any observation of special risk in the experimental procedure. In my judgment, at no point were subjects exposed to danger and at no point did they run the risk of injurious effects resulting from participation. If it had been otherwise, the experiment would have been terminated at once.'
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Psychology Research Methods
Howard Gardner became the first psychologist to receive a MacArthur Prize Fellowship. This highly prestigious award, known colloquially as the "genius grant" is awarded "to talented individuals who have shown extraordinary originality and dedication in their creative pursuits and a marked capacity for self-direction."
Gardner is renowned for his groundbreaking theory of Multiple Intelligences (MI) first documented in his hugely influential book 'Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences' in 1983.
Dorothea Jameson was born. Along with her husband Leo M. Hurvich, Jameson conducted pioneering research on the bidirectionality of color perception. In 1972 Jameson and Hurvich received the American Psychological Association (APA) Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award, the award citation read:
'The research team of Dorothea Jameson and Leo Hurvich has significantly advanced our knowledge of color vision through a broadly based program of conceptually sophisticated and rigorously conducted experiments. Their research has provided basic data which are essential to theory and at the same time provide a quantitative framework for physiological investigations. Their very unusual scholarship, technical skill, untiring motivation, and contagious enthusiasm for scientific discovery have set new standards of excellence against which future experimenters and theorists will be judged.'
One of the world's leading authorities on color theory and optics, Jameson was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1975.
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Eminent Women in Psychology
Donald Olding Hebb's trailblazing work 'The Organization of Behavior: A Neuropsychological Theory' was published.
Based on Hebb's attempt to explain perception, thinking and learning in terms of neural connectivity and cell-assembly; this extraordinarily influential book breathed new life into the study of physiological psychology, established neuroscience as a major cornerstone of psychological inquiry, introduced pioneering neuropsychological concepts such as neural plasticity and paved the way for the cognitive revolution in psychology.
Robert Ebel was born. A renowned educational psychologist, Ebel is best known for the significant contribution he made within the field of psychometric theory and measurement. Ebel was a professor in the department of Counseling and Educational Psychology at Michigan State University From 1963 to 1981, during which time he wrote the influential textbooks 'Measuring Educational Achievement' and 'Essentials of Education Measurement.'
Among his many professional accolades, Robert Ebel was elected president of Division 5 of the American Psychological Association (Evaluation, Measurement & statistics) in 1971 and he also served as president of the American Educational Research Association in 1972-1973.
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Aurelius Augustinus (St. Augustine) was born. A renowned philosopher and celebrated thinker, St. Augustine wrote widely about the human experience, most notably in his epic autobiographical work 'Confessions' and in doing so addressed a number of topics that continue to be studied within contemporary psychology today; including, happiness, motivation and emotion, sexuality, memory and language.
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History of Psychology
Frederic M. Lord was born. A pioneer in the field of psychological measurement and testing, Lord's seminal publication 'Statistical Theories of Mental Test Scores' written with Melvin R. Novick published in 1968 is widely acknowledged as the text that ushered in the modern era of psychometric theory and practice.
In 1988 Frederic M. Lord won the American Psychological Association (APA) Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions and in 1990 received The National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME) Award for Career Contributions to Educational Measurement which honors a person whose contributions over a career have had a widespread positive impact on the field of educational measurement.